why are hyenas portrayed as evil

As they developed as a people in their own right, they ended up consciously embracing the stereotypes of this trope: while neurological and biological modifications were available to dampen their aggressive tendencies, the sapient hyenas saw these as anthropocentric attempts to erase their identity as a species and turn them into yet another clade of humans in animal bodies. Scanning the floors of their habitats, a hyena can spend almost a day searching for food for either itself or its young. Portrayed as dim-witted and mangy poachers, right from their introduction, the trio of hyenas is seen chasing our beloved lion cubs Simba and Nala to kill them. Although the eternal rivalry between the lion and the hyena are accurately represented in The Lion King, the lions are the antagonists. And we’re learning more about them every day. This has spread beyond the native animistic religions: the Christian Orthodox Tewahedo Church of. Those who answered its calls were set upon by the beast and viciously torn to pieces. Its most notable characteristic was its ability to imitate human voices, an ability it used to lure humans and dogs out of their homes and into the wilderness. Kristen Haddox, Penn State University4. Evil stepmothers, witches and crones: When they aren't poisoning princesses, they're mangling mermaids or trying to eat children. Hyenas are scavengers, meaning that they’re able to eat and digest dead organisms found in their habitats. Hyenas are rarely kept in zoos because they're unpopular with guests — perhaps ironically, the spotted hyena, the kind most often hit by this trope, is the most commonly displayed. Another month of finding new music during unusual times. Hyenas and Harar go way back: written accounts record hyenas making nightly visits to the city for 500 years. Once exhausted, the helpless prey is eaten alive. Of course, many hyenas did choose to take the behavioral modifications, and considered the hyenas still enamored with this trope to be backward savages obsessed with glorifying violence. An ancient local belief states that hyenas are keepers of evil spirits and that they can predict the future. Not because they are evil or dumb. Really evil people, by contrast, are out to abolish existence as such. Bible (well, New Testament) scholars will remember Matthew 25:31-33: “the Son of Man … will separate the people one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. Claw was Tom and Tab's supervisor while Scar was Shenzi, Banzai and Ed's supervisor. All the aardwolves (a small species of hyena) that appear in the show are "good." In the hyena’s case, these connotations are bad. Portrayed as “slobbery” and “sluggish”, these characterizations have come to define the hyena as an unloved animal and an animal that has not been as respected as it should be. The biggest reasons why hyenas are portrayed as evil in fiction so much is probably because of their ugly appearance, the widespread dislike of them, and outright myths, rather than reality, as other loved predators such as dogs, wolves, and big cats do the exact same things hyenas are despised for, yet no one seems to despise them the same way. Because of their destructive habits, the hyenas are outcast from the Pride Lands. They resemble humans in almost every respect save one — they have a hyena's face on the back of their heads, which swivels around to snarl and bite when they drop their acts and attack their victims. Old goat. Subverted by the anthropomorphic hyenas in. The three spotted hyenas in the film, Shenzi, Bonzai and Ed all serve as Scar’s henchmen throughout most of the film. Here's my argument - if Scar hadn't been self-obsessed and had actually cared about his 'evil' hyena minions, he wouldn't be an expy of Adolf Hitler but George Washington; the hyenas … One unpleasant habit they do not share with most of these other predators is killing their siblings shortly after birth, which may be another reason for their reputation for brutality. And yes, the trio was led by the female Shenzi, an accurate depiction seeing as how hyena packs were matriarchal. Influenced heavily by Shakespeare’s Hamlet, Disney’s The Lion King explores the coming of age of the young lion Simba, after the death of his father Mufasa, at the paws of his uncle Scar. Whether it is a night in at home baking sweet Christmas themed goodies for Santa, or a night out exploring lit up neighborhoods, the holiday season should always be taken advantage of for cute activities! However, it doesn't mean that COVID-19 has decided to disappear. Notable hyenas in the galaxy include the inhabitants of Skulk, a gas giant dotted with floating habitats home to hyena clans, which were unified by a hyena matriarch named Belligerence in a bloody power grab. A prime example of this misrepresentation is the spotted hyenas that served as the secondary antagonists in Disney’s 1994 animated classic, The Lion King. Scar is the real villain in The Lion King and creates monsters out of the other characters. They are larger in size and more aggressive than their male counterparts. A significant part of their bad rap, and the misconception that they are scavengers, comes from the fact they will scavenge graves if desperate. In the musical, they are revealed to be one of the reasons the Pridelands has depleted, as they had forced the lionesses to overhunt. Indeed, one cannot forget The Lion King remake where hyenas have been portrayed as sinister, cringing, and crafty creatures acting as sidekicks to the rogue lion Scar. However, this misinformation poses more of a threat to a child than a blessing. Exactly how straight this trope is played depends on the setting and ruleset used: many settings have Gnolls being mostly evil but with occasional non-evil gnoll societies, and in 3rd edition. They are often associated with a great variety of negative traits (exactly which ones often depends on the culture and tradition in question), including deviousness, brutishness, immorality, gluttony, subversive and unwholesome behavior and filthiness. Lions are among the most beautiful and popular animals in the world, and although more people are beginning to like hyenas as time goes on, they still can't compete with lions in. The crocotta is a vicious mythical animal from Roman and Medieval bestiaries and accounts, said to inhabit Sub-Saharan Africa, India or both and resemble a monstrous doglike or wolflike animal. Yaenits are a kind of demons in the shape of six-feet-tall, hyena-headed humanoids who serve Lamashtu and live to main and kill in their goddess' name. In many African — especially West African — traditions, hyenas do not exactly enjoy a stellar reputation. This is, however, averted in a number of other traditions which see hyenas in a more positive light. His favored demon servants are the shoosuvas, which resemble albino hyenas with spikes and scorpions' tails. The Lion Guard still uses hyenas as the main antagonists, but establishes that most hyenas are good. While all of that is terrible, the hyenas ultimately act like this because they’re starving. Simply put, hyenas are just survivors. http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/HeinousHyena. they killed and ate the zebra and Orange Juice the orangutan. Despite this, it frequently clashes with Scavengers Are Scum; in Real Life, however, spotted hyenas are mostly hunters, and in the wild, lions will take any opportunity to steal kills from them and kill them as they are often rivals for territory. Hyenas are skilled hunters, equipped with the tools that they need to ensure that they can feed themselves and their packs. It is unknown why the hyenas were forced to leave Pride Rock. This trope does not only apply to actual hyenas, but humans or other creatures that use hyena symbolism; comparing a character with an unpleasant laugh to a hyena is particularly common in fiction, to the point that there's a trope named after it. Disney’s Lion King remake proudly stresses its similarities to the original movie, but it needs to change how its hyena villains are characterized. After hours each year scouring the internet for the perfect Christmas gifts to get my boyfriend, I have come up with a pretty long and inclusive list. Hyenas are all portrayed as stupid and evil, also in too many cultures to list, (this is ironic, because in real life hyenas are comparable to apes in intelligence). Hyenas are the stereotypical “mangy mutts” of the animal kingdom, often portrayed as slow-minded and slobbering. Anybody who’s ever known hunger can empathize with this. he was a golden jackal in the original book, he tries to pin the blame for his takeover on them, despite the species not being native to India, and never war against or enslave other gnolls, Two hyenas named Tom and Tab are henchmen of the villainous lion Claw in, Similarly to the aforementioned anime, several, It's easily missed, but in the film adaption of, Mostly averted with Barbs, the zoo hyena in. When they’re not scavenging, hyenas have a very anomalous way of catching prey. And although some of these attitudes are erected from the fact that these animals may be bad for the agricultural business, it could possibly have to do with their portrayal in film. The majority of the time, however, they're depicted as dirty, smelly Villainous Gluttons. They do end up killing Scar in revenge when. Negative attitudes towards the hyenas have caused them to suffer from methods like shooting to poisoning. Questions About Society and Class. Like the. This lack of respect may come from the inaccurate representation of animal in media and film. Hyenas are often referred to as evil hermaphrodites, a myth that needs immediate dispelling. These qualities of the hyenas were not present at all in The Lion King. The most obvious reason for Disney to do this is because they wanted the movie to appeal to children, and the lion was a much more children friendly animal than the hyena. 10​​ Songs That Made It Onto My November Playlist, 7 Christmas Ideas For Couples That You Can Still Do In The Middle Of A Global Pandemic, Every Track On Ariana Grande's 'Positions' Album Ranked, 22 Christmas Gifts To Get Your Boyfriend If He's The Guy Who Always Says He Doesn't 'Want Anything', 10 Ways You Can Safely Enjoy The Holidays During The Pandemic, The 5 Things We ALL Want For Christmas In Mariah Carey's New Special, 10 Things You Need From Target If You Want To Take Your Christmas Decor Game To A Whole New Level, How The 'Friends' Theme Song Is Actually Describing 2020 — And It Couldn't BE More Accurate. One medieval bestiary noted that since hyenas are “neither male nor female, they are neither faithful nor pagan,” and are obviously not to be trusted. Carey's twins will also make a special appearance. TVTropes is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Seen as malicious, devilish, and often associated with witchcraft, hyenas have been widely misrepresented in culture, folklore, and even in movies," he exclaimed. Spotted hyenas have enlarged forebrains, which is the part of the brain involved with complex decision making. The hyenas graduate from laughing sidekicks to true bad guys ... while the hyenas benefit from an evil boost, trading their idiocy for a more sophisticated, scheming existence. This isn't our day, our week, our month, and definitely not our year... Everyone knows the iconic Friends theme song and although we may have joked in previous years how relatable it is, here's a breakdown of the lyrics and how they are so 2020, we might never be able to listen to it again after 2020. Clare Regelbrugge, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Sign in to comment to your favorite stories, participate in your community and interact with your friends. Thankfully, these have become slightly more common in recent years, even though it is still somewhat rare. The common factor for both species to become so threatened is negative attitudes from humans. At least one myth, from the Tanzanian Gogo people, blames hyenas for human mortality: according to the myth, humans were originally supposed to be made immortal, but a hyena kept this from happening to ensure it would always have plenty of corpses to eat. Here are the five things from the special we're most looking forward to. He is Simba's uncle and arch-nemesis, Kion and Kiara's grand-uncle, Mufasa's younger brother and arch-rival, Shenzi, Banzai and Ed's former leader and boss, and Zira's friend. Of course they are not vindictive but what makes them unpleasant is the way they kill things and the laugh is enough to scare people shitless, especially as they tend to come out at night so you cannot see it, just hear the cackle. Hyenas are the stereotypical “mangy mutts” of the animal kingdom, often portrayed as slow-minded and slobbering. It was a welcome and refreshing change of pace. States such as Kentucky have closed all of their restaurants, schools, and businesses until December. A festive special is certainly what we all need right now. However, this is far from the reality of the situation. . To help those girlfriends going through the same thing, I decided to put together some of the best gifts I have come across. Although Shenzi, Bonzai and Ed’s relatives seem to be flourishing in the wild, their cousins, the striped hyenas and the brown hyenas are considered “Near Threatened” by the International Union for the conservation of Nature (IUCN). A new month means new music! Scar is the main antagonist of The Lion King franchise. No matter which group you fall in, there's a good chance that this year has been a tough one, so why not treat yourself to a few new pieces that will spark joy in your heart every single time you catch a glimpse of them. Although gruesome, this tactic was developed by the hyenas due to the presence of lions. What followed was yet another number one peak on the Billboard 200 albums chart. Now that the album has been out for a solid month, it's the perfect time to see how the songs rank. They are a trio of spotted hyenas who were loyal followers and henchmen of Scar. With "Positions," Grande took a much more light-hearted approach than the confessional nature of its predecessor, "Thank U, Next." Granted, Simba and Nala were chased at great lengths. The hyenas in both cartoons serve an evil lion. The reasons for this remain unclear, but the antipathy between the lions and the hyenas bears closer investigation. But, the movie focused more on antagonizing these animals, rather than showcasing the authenticity of this hot-blooded relationship. No one wants to talk about 2020, but these decor pieces will give everyone something worth talking about. The hyenas in the original Lion King were decidedly among the bad guys, but they had some unusual motivations: they aligned with archvillain Scar in hopes of landing a good meal. Even amongst demons, he's infamous for his cruelty and his love of destruction. The lions cite the excuse that the hyenas would overrun everything and eat all the herds, so the herds are really just choosing the lesser evil by accepting lion tyranny. Although they are different he becomes represented more as the christian devil in mainstream media than Hades the geeek god ruler of the underworld. The hyenas were the villainous henchmen of the movies, and Disney made sure we knew they were evil by making them all sound ethnically Hispanic or like they were from the ghetto. This article has not been reviewed by Odyssey HQ and solely reflects the ideas and opinions of the creator. . According to the CDC, 147,840 new cases of COVID have been recorded in the last seven days. Hyenas, meanwhile, are ostensibly bad guys, but it's because they're being starved to death. Radhi, SUNY Stony Brook3. Male lions kill cubs in front of their mothers, to jolt them into heat sooner so they can mate with them, which is just as "brutal" if not more so, and they are seen as noble kings by most people. It's no secret that for a majority of people, Christmas season is the happiest time of year. I think he is portrayed as the bad guy in mainstream media because he has some Similar functions to the christian devil. Scapegoat. While other animals will attempt this, the fact the spotted hyenas can directly eat bone means they will be interested in graves far after other animals wouldn't find anything edible. That's ironic, since the spotted hyena is the largest, strongest, and smartest hyena, very rarely scavenging, and living in large clans with a clear hierarchy. Hyenas are a crucial member of the ecological world, as their body mechanics allows them to clean up all the waste found in their environment. An Ethiopian folk religion tells of people who possess the evil eye and can change themselves into the creatures. Overall, sapient hyenas in the setting's present have tendency to live in highly hierarchical matriarchies, to have personalities tending to being aggressive and vindictive and to spend a great deal of time jockeying for position amongst each other, although they are also highly social and cooperative. In fact, there are ways to still celebrate the holiday safely. The Queen of Christmas is back and bringing festive moments to an all-new special premiering December 4! Individual hyenas come across as Laughably Evil. The scientific name of the spotted hyena, In Antiquity, the striped hyena was associated with fertility and love, which ensured. Throughout the film, the hyenas are seen causing chaos amongst the lions, who serve as the main protagonists of the film. The female appendage is a strange concept to get your head around, but there’s a perfectly natural biological reason for this. Why were the hyenas such a problem? Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available from thestaff@tvtropes.org. Do the hyenas benefit from Scar's new … One episode has him (temporarily) banish them from his clan, and Kion says they are allowed to stay in the Pride Lands as long as they don't cause trouble. Diverse animal species all around the world are dying at an alarming rate. However, the hyenas are portrayed to the viewer as being gullible, unintelligent scavengers who rely on Scar/the lions for food, a far cry from the primate-like intelligence of real spotted hyenas, who’re apex predators in their own right. Hyenas literally catch the breath of their prey. They are often depicted as either insane Ax-Crazy sadists, as stupid Dirty Cowards, as a horrific Monster Clown, or as the occasional Terrible Trio. In their eyes, being as such is bad. Hyenas are one of the few animal packs in the world that are structured as matriarchal. "Lion Whisperer" Kevin Richardson, despite the title and his love of lions, is also very fond of hyenas, and works to change public opinion about them. It is well known that the lionesses of pride were responsible for bringing back dinner. Yeenoghu would also qualify as an example, given that he appears as a giant, demonic gnoll. Whether it's driving animals out of their habitats or poaching animals for their skins and other various appendages, there is a clear lack of respect between humans and animals. Compare The Hyena, which is a character who's constantly laughing (and who may or may not be a literal hyena). Mortal gnolls worship them as incarnations of Lamashtu's will and strive to be like them, and a good deal of yaenits start out as the souls of particularly evil gnolls. As such, most sapient hyenas ended up celebrating their status as aggressive outcasts and pariahs unwanted by mainstream civilization. Brittany Morgan, National Writer's Society2. The all-new movie, The Lion King, which Disney releases July 19, again portrays a trio of spotted hyenas as evil sidekicks of the villain Scar. Ariana Grande has achieved major success with her new album and we're ranking every track. Then Scar takes power, with a disastrous merger of lions and hyenas, portrayed as disrupting the Circle of Life. contributing to fighting a crazed Nodoka in the climax of the Deathival arc by biting her neck. You may be thinking, 'is there any way to really enjoy Christmas during the pandemic?' A bunch of other insects, such as flies, a ladybug, a mosquito, etc, appear and have their traits used for gags. Mariah Carey is saving 2020 by bringing an all-new Christmas special to Apple TV+ starting December 4. Like each month, I've collected my top 10 new songs or discoveries into a playlist. As aardwolves are insectivores, they are exempt from the, The biggest reasons why hyenas are portrayed as evil in fiction so much is probably because of their. Majority of this extinction, no surprise, is due to human activities. 5th edition lore claims that gnolls were mutated from hyenas that consumed the corpses of creatures slain by him when he went on one of his sporadic rampages through the Material Plane. (34 to 72.6 kg), according to ADW. A Bug's Life: Ants are good. It is estimated that only 5,000 to 14,000 exist today in the wild. This involves actually going into the enclosure and interacting with them, petting and playing with them despite the danger of working with wild animals like these. Rather than killing their prey directly, like the other animals found in their habitat, hyenas chase their prey to exhaustion. In o ne study, the hyenas had to figure out how t o open doors in a box, and each went about it in a different way. The holidays are such a fun time to celebrate with loved ones; here are a few activities to consider being a part of during this Christmas season. You get my goat. Brown hyena. The Deconstruction of this trope is one the main themes of Zootopia. These hyenas also have a fondness for laughing and a fear (and hatred) of lions. An interesting idea as to why spotted hyenas are hated by human beings can be seen in the fact that their social structure is actually more similar to, Being seen as rivals to lions also does not do them any good. In fact, this trope is a plot point in their initial appearance, since they get mistaken for the "bad" spotted hyenas and chased out of the Pridelands by the Guard. How are hyenas portrayed as different from or inferior to the other animals? Due to the omnipresence of this trope, good hyenas in fiction pretty much only exist as a deliberate subversion. It's almost December, which means that it's almost time for the biggest holiday season to arrive! Hyenas are hardly nice creatures. I mean, it's not like the hyenas eventually took over and ate everything because the lions were starving them and treating them like crap . Jennifer Kustanovich, SUNY Stony Brook5. Brown hyenas are the second largest, ranging from 51 to 63 inches (130 to 160 cm) long and weighing 75 to 160 lbs. Ariana Grande surprised fans in October, tweeting that her new album was being released. Grasshoppers are bad. Hyenas must not only keep an ear up for any human who abhors these beautiful creatures, but also for the sneaky lions who continue to harass them. Female hyena are the dominant leaders within clans. Our hyenas have participated in cognitive research solving puzzles. Why Evil is the Only TV Procedural Worth Watching Features Evil transcends supernatural crime procedurals because it’s got no cops, but does have real demons and a … Kishis are sociopathic fey who delight in tricking their way into others' confidence, luring them into the depths of the jungle, and then turning on their victim and tearing them apart. RELATED: 10 Diabolical ... Mufasa’s son Simba, before assuming power himself. Shenzi, Banzai, and Ed arethe secondary antagonists of Disney's 1994 animated feature filmThe Lion King. Each year I have to rack my brain for gift ideas because when I ask my boyfriend what he wants for Christmas, he always says something along the lines of "nothing," which as a girl is hard to fathom since I literally give him a list each year before Black Friday. Some governors have started to advise caution when celebrating the holidays, too. Contrast King of Beasts, Panthera Awesome, Noble Wolf, and Heroic Dog since hyenas are often made out as the Unpleasant Animal Counterpart to big cats and wild dogs. I know we're nitpicking a twenty year old kid's film, but recently saw it again and want your thoughts. In the four Christmas' that I have spent with my boyfriend, I have realized one thing: boys are hard to shop for. Known for their sadism and haunting laughter, the hyenas dwell in the Elephant Graveyard. He was voiced by Jeremy Irons in the first film, by Jim Cummings in the second film,and by David Oyelowo in The Lion Guard. This portrayal cannot be farther from the truth. “Humans are consistently indicated as the major source of mortality…largely because the hyena is loathed as a grave robber, and because of incidents of damage to agriculture…and livestock,” says the IUCN. Already one of Disney's most popular trailers, The Lion King’s first teaser has been praised the detail of its photo-realistic CGI, and how well James Earl Jones’s voice-over captures the spirit of the animated classic. It will feature guest stars, festive moments, and musical performances. There are people that put their trees up before Halloween even begins and those that calmly wait until Thanksgiving is over. Although when these other species do appear, they aren't always portrayed as negatively as the spotted hyena. None of them seem to have any redeeming qualities, as Mufasa refused to let them into the Pride Lands. There are lots of information about the upcoming special that has many fans excited. This portrayal cannot be farther from the truth. It's more that most people choose which animals they like mainly based on, In a real life aversion of this trope, an African wild dog that had lost its pack was lonely enough it. Ranging from merely 5,000 to 8,000, oppositions with humans have taken a very seriously toll on the population of these animals. It was reputed to have a single ridge of bone in each jaw rather than teeth, to dig up and eat human corpses and to switch genders every year. Bud and Lou also appear as recurring antagonists in. For example, the mythology of the Lungu people credits a hyena with bringing the sun — and, consequently, warmth and life — to a previously cold and barren Earth. 10 Most Evil Disney Villains (& The Worst Thing They Did) ... too, in the case of Hades from Hercules (brilliantly portrayed by James Woods) as just one example. Hyenas must not only keep an ear up for any human who abhors these beautiful creatures, but also for the sneaky lions who continue to harass them. However, lionesses don’t always necessarily have to catch and kill their prey to feed the rest of the pride. When people are starving, they’ll do anything to get by. It is generally agreed that the creature was inspired by real life accounts of hyenas, which do indeed produce human-like vocalizations (such as their famous "laughter") and whose genders are notoriously difficult to tell apart (female hyenas are bigger than the males, in the inverse of how it usually works for mammals, and most notably their sexual organs resemble those of mammal males far more than they resemble those of other female mammals). There was a similar creature called the leucrocotta, which had much the same appearance and attributes, but also had hooves and was reputed to be an extremely swift runner. Cecil replies: I don’t know what it is with goats. They hunt in large packs when going for large game, an opt for one on one chases when salivating over much smaller prey. Simba didn't have a change of heart? Running at an astounding 40 miles per hour, their large hearts constitute for 1% of their total body weight, allowing their endurance to far surpass that of their preys. This November didn't have too many new releases, however, I did find a few and a couple of new discoveries. An even smaller number of brown hyenas roam the lands of sub-Saharan Africa. The striped hyenas roam a large expanse of land that stretches from northern Africa to the Middle East. Songs About Being 17Grey's Anatomy QuotesVine Quotes4 Leaf CloverSelf Respect, 1. Even with a pandemic, there are still ways to celebrate. This small number is largely due to the way they are treated by humans. Why Are Old Women Often The Face Of Evil In Fairy Tales And Folklore? Even at the end of the movie, after they ended Scar, they were once again cast back into the Elephant Graveyard. Here are 10 ways that you can still enjoy the holiday season without canceling any of your plans. The Earth is currently in its 6th mass extinction. Some centuries in the past there was also a band of mercenary humanoid hyena cyborgs that rose to infamy when they attacked a peaceful habitat with maser weaponry, boarded it with several containers of salt and spices and devoured the soft-boiled bodies of its inhabitants over the course of a three-day feast. Because they represent crushing debt service — Scar's takeover of the Pride Lands is a textbook example of an disastrous leveraged buyout. Hyenas are frequently portrayed as evil in fiction. In another subversion showing that hyenas aren't so bad, a man named Bryan Hawn, who was featured in an episode of. In The Lion King, all of the hyenas are portrayed as equally evil. Likewise, humans have been feeding hyenas in Harar for a long time. 1 Pure Evil: Ursula The all-star cast includes Tiffany Haddish, Billy Eichner, and Snoop Dogg. The album's title track and lead single, "Positions," also hit number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. They agree to this, and keep their word. Misrepresentation leads to connotations that can be either bad or good. At least two of Janja's clan members are actually decent when he's not around to order them to do bad things. “But in fact, it is far more frequent that the lion will steal a kill from the hyenas,” says zoologist Kay Holekamp of Michigan State University, thus serving as a reason to why hyenas kill in such an unfashionable manner. Gnolls are monstrous humanoids resembling hyenas that were originally created by the demon lord Yeenoghu. Fictional hyenas are mostly spotted hyenas; striped and brown hyenas are much, much rarer, and aardwolves (a purely insect-eating species) are still practically unheard of. In the Middle Ages, hyenas were believed to dig up and consume the bodies of the dead. Treated with great cruelty, these hyenas now find some sanction, ranched in protected and safe areas.

Koala Outline Simple, Wella Illumina Color 10/69, Antlion Audio Modmic, Creative Strategy And The Business Of Design Ebook, The London Howlin' Wolf Sessions, Lcd Soundsystem Sheet Music, Day Scholar Pronunciation,