lubuntu efi partition

The Master Boot Record button will create an old partition table but will only allow 4 primary partitions and partitions up to 2 Terabytes. Select Normal Installation & Deselect Updates. Saturday, May 2, 2020 To move to the next step once again press the Next button. 1) Prepare the partition on windows. How to mount the EFI system partition using Ubuntu 16.04 Live CD. Once Lubuntu is installed you have a checkbox Reboot now after your Lubuntu is installed and is now finished. Tears of Steel Fourth Official Blender Movie, Download Link Inside! It is normally required for you to create a separate partition for the boot loader code in order to boot your system in EFI mode. 3. This tutorial should be sufficient for most users and is intended for people without deep knowledge in computing. – jbbiomed Apr 16 '17 at 12:05. Next type your username in the What name do you want to use to log in?. Power on your computer and enter bios immediately. You can do the rest of this tutorial to install Ubuntu in a separate disk partition alongside Windows in another disk partition. August 6, 2018. See at the bottom of the page when you have finished creating the partitions. The box boots on UEFI/GPT. Close. However, if you’re using a hard disk with EFI system partitions created for the macOS, and you now want to install Windows to replace macOS, then you need to delete the old EFI system partition and create a new one for Windows. If you are booting your computer in UEFI mode a more modern firmware compared to BIOS you will need to create an EFI system partition (see efi system partition Wikipedia for more detail). 2. The Keyboard Model menu lets you choose different variants, the left column lets you change language, and the right column gets different variants. Create / Partition: Select free space and press on Add button. Let's partition the disk, Change boot order so that USB boots first. To not start installing and go back press the Go back button. Once you have checked the summary click the Install button to begin the installation. Suppose that the EFI boot partition on your UEFI (non-BIOS) computer was accidentally deleted or formatted (for example, when you tried to remove an OEM recovery partition).As a result Windows 10/8.1/ 7 doesn’t boot correctly, cyclically prompting you to select the boot device (Reboot and select proper boot device or insert boot media in selected boot device and press a key). Following screen shows for the swap partition. Toll und gleichzeitig nicht besonders Anwenderfreundlich. If you are booting your computer in UEFI mode a more modern firmware compared to BIOS you will need to create an EFI system partition (see efi system partition Wikipedia for more detail). ubuntubuzz.com © 2020, Support by Blogger, Step By Step to Install Ubuntu 20.04 with Optional UEFI, Dualboot, and External Storage Instructions, Booting GNU/Linux Manually with GRUB Prompt, How To Delete Telegram Groups Permanently, How To Install Kvantum Engine for KDE on Ubuntu. Try to change the location of the partition to use for the bootloader by choosing the EFI partition. Install Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver) – Create EFI Partition. You will need at least one root (/) partition and if you are booting an EFI system you will also need a /boot/efi mounted partition. To advance to the setting up users press the Next button. Allerdings war mir nicht klar, dass Ubuntu auch die EFI Partition auf der 2. You may now partition the disk using fdisk or other utilities. The user setup section creates a user profile, consisting of typing your name into the What is your name? It is strongly advised to write down this passphrase and keep it somewhere safe. Windows: Burn the downloaded … Legacy BIOS doesn’t need a specific partitioning scheme or any partitions for the boot loader. ~300MB should be enough for multi-boot but ~550MB is preferable. Normally if our Windows OS is installed on EFI mode, we will install Lubuntu also in EFI but it's installed on Bios mode, we will do the same for Ubuntu. If you have a fresh empty hard disk then you have to first clean on New Partition Table after that select the free space and Click on + to create a new partition.. EFI partition in ubuntu is basically a FAT partition with label “EFI” How to create / restore an efi partition ? Sie ist als FAT32 formatiert. It focuses on speed and energy-efficiency. Now we'll create the partitions. This partition should be marked for use as an "EFI boot partition" and should be at least 35 MB in size. You will prepare a bootable media, two partitions, and go through ten steps until everything finished. It may take a … The file system field is a drop down menu, select which file-system you want. To overwrite the Linux boot loader with … The EFI system partition (also called ESP) is an OS independent partition that acts as the storage place for the EFI bootloaders, applications and drivers to be launched by the UEFI firmware. Hmm - ich weiß ned genau ob man EFI einfach komplett abschalten kann. To go back on all your changes to the previous state press the Revert All Changes button. I think I’m effed.. Here’s what happened: I have an old Win10 laptop, but iso on a USB, used Rufus thought I was good to go. If you already have … The Zone field should have a major city with the same time as you. Once your linux flavor has been installed, and it’s written its respective folder to the EFI partition (ubuntu, in the case above), you’ll have to tell Windows to use the Linux GRUB bootloader instead of its own, since the GRUB bootloader allows you to selectively launch whichever OS you’d like. The functions gpt_zap and gpt_fix are built into mkusb. 2. All material which provided in this site is belong to its official vendor, we are neither affiliated with authors of any site nor responsible for its content and change of content. If you are having this question of "can I delete the EFI system partition" or "how do I remove an EFI partition", stay here. – Khurshid Alam Sep 1 '15 at 7:20 @KhurshidAlam Yes, do that if it doesn't do it automatically. field. There is no such thing as an EFI partition. Legacy BIOS doesn’t need a specific partitioning scheme or any partitions for the boot loader. You also need to select where you want to mount the partition in the Mount Point drop down menu. If you want to encrypt your drive press the Encrypt system checkbox and then you will need to enter the encryption passphrase twice make sure you have it typed in correctly. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, Choose a password to keep your account safe, Chapter 4 Installing, Updating, and Removing Software, Appendix D Upgrading from previous releases. Most probably you don't need a swap partition, as there's plenty of RAM on any modern system, swap space is rarely used. To see what region you have chosen use the Region drop down menu. EFI system partition is a small (100-500 MB) FAT16 or FAT32 partition containing UEFI-compatible Windows Boot Loader and its configuration (BCD registry hive). Secure-Boot müssen Sie abschalten, wie im Tipp „Windows 7 neben 8 auf einem Uefi-PC“ beschrieben. To do this run. Legacy BIOS: Following shows for /boot partition. To cancel an installation press the Cancel button. The last thing you need to enter is your password in the Choose a password to keep your account safe. So you have to check if it's the same with your Windows systems. If you had a previous Linux install with swap you will need to unmount the swap. To change what device your computer will boot off of you will need to use the Install boot loader on drop down menu to select which disc to boot off of. In recent versions of Linux fdisk, you set the partition type by its number (1 for "EFI System" on GPT disks or 0xEF on MBR disks) or … And yes, you can use legacy BIOS. Force Windows to use GRUB . After pressing the Install button a dialog will pop up to confirm installation. GRUB requires a BIOS Boot Partition (2 MiB, no filesystem, EF02 type code in gdisk or bios_grub flag in GNU Parted) in BIOS systems to embed its core.img file due to lack of post-MBR embed gap in GPT disks . Because I started the setup from UEFI and I have no other ESP (EFI system partition) I must make one. I will select Use as and choose ESP from there. August 24, 2017 at 10:44 PM […] After restoring or formatting efi partition your system will not boot since bootloader needs to be reinstalled on the new efi partition, Follow this tutorial to reinstall grub efi bootloader in your ubuntu system. After selecting the language the Next button will move you on to the next task. EFI system partition is very important in booting the installed OS and system utilities of the hard disk. What type of filesystem is displayed in the File System column. The Next screen shows sda1 partition for Windows Xp and free space, Now we are going to install Ubuntu 11.04 so we need to create / partition and Swap. Normally if our Windows OS is installed on EFI mode, we will install Lubuntu also in EFI but it's installed on Bios mode, we will do the same for Ubuntu. Diese Platte ist aber nicht wirklich Teil des Systems und soll auch fehlen dürfen (da ist nur Spielkram wie z.B. Boot into Ubuntu live alias 'Try Ubuntu' from an amd64 iso file in UEFI mode. This partition should be marked for use as an "EFI boot partition" and should be at least 35 MB in size. Ubuntu 15.04 installer is supposed to do that automatically, but it doesn't. Fix Ubuntu not detecting Windows 10 during installation. UEFI Oberfläche mit Boot-Modus "UEFI" Ubuntu auf USB-Stick installieren - so geht's. There is no such thing as an EFI partition. at It is recommended to have the swap partition twice the size of the physical memory. Part 1. If you do not go back to the partitioning menu and correct this error, boot loader installation may fail later, although it may still be possible to install the boot loader to a partition. Put what you want your hostname of your computer to be in the what is the name of this computer? This partition holds EFI-mode boot loaders and related files. Create a Bootable CD/DVD. Do not interrupt the booting of Ubuntu image. UEFI System: Following shows for EFI partition. You will also need a root (/) file-system, several file-systems included for Lubuntu are Ext4, XFS, and Btrfs. Note that this is not the same as a partition mounted on /boot. To move back to Selecting your keyboard layout press the Back button. **If you are booting in UEFI mode (GPT), then you need to make an EFI partition also, which will tell the bootloader to boot Ubuntu. If you have a new hard disc or solid state drive press the New Partition table button but this will delete the whole disc if you have any data on it. Next select your keyboard layout, you can check your keyboard matches the keyboard shown picture shown. The Test memory option tests to make sure your RAM works on your computer. If you wish to manual set up partitions, as an advanced option you will have to choose which file-system you want. In diesem Video erklären wir Ihnen, wie Sie Ubuntu auch einfach und praktisch auf einem USB-Stick installieren können. Just reformat or create a normal FAT filesystem partition with a size of 512MB (can be any size) and label it as “EFI”, You can use fdisk command if you are comfortable with cli or you can use gparted tool from a live media of ubuntu to create new efi partition. And yes, you can use legacy BIOS. Your location will be used to set your time zone and download server. which will unmount them and any swap partitions. Bei einer Systemsicherung unter einem (U)EFI-Windows werden in der Regel alle Verzeichnisse und Dateien auf der EFI-Partition in das Backup mit aufgenommen. In the Ubuntu installer, you identify the partition as an "EFI boot partition." Create a partition table with mkusb/wipe using mkusb-11 'classic mode', Advanced: create GUID partition table (skeleton for installing an OS) After that, use gparted to get a partition table with partitions for EFI, root and swap. Also thanks for sharing this issue. In the Ubuntu installer, you identify the partition as an "EFI boot partition." To remove ubuntu grub you need to mount that partition on Windows and remove the entire Ubuntu … Ask Question Asked 3 years, 5 months ago. Step By Step to Install Ubuntu 20.04 with Optional UEFI, Dualboot, and External Storage Instructions. This is a tutorial to install Ubuntu 20.04 Focal Fossa operating system into your computer. Dieses beinhaltet also auch das Verzeichnis (/boot/efi/)EFI/ubuntu mit seinen Startdateien (siehe oben). Die Installation wird nun beginnen und Ubuntu wird im UEFI-Modus installiert. field. There is plenty of doc and posts to go by, starting with the Arch Wiki on grub, but I'm stuck although I *seem* to have retained some of the grub config files. The packages take up abo… Ubuntu 11.04 requires about 4.4 GB, So we should type a value more than 4.4 GB. 1. This is a guide through the installation process of Lubuntu. Probably something wrong with the installer. Please use this if you have problems installing as it could be bad media. To move back to selecting your language to change your language press the Back button. You can do this to computer either with bios or uefi, in either single or dualboot mode and optionally put it into external hard disk drive if you wish. EFI system partition on a Master Boot Record partition table is identified by the partition type ID EF. Usually, a separate hard drive running Windows 10, or a Windows 10 partition is automatically detected with Os-Prober, a sophisticated operating system scanning tool. From 17.04 I don't think you need to swap partition any more. Download Zorin OS 15.3 With Mirrors, Torrents and Checksums, Kubuntu 20.04 with KDE Legacy Oxygen Theme, Select Normal Installation without Updates. Ich habe keine Ahnung, warum ich es manchmal brauche und andere nicht (beide waren auf demselben System). At the time of writing the guide, it was Ubuntu 16.04, later updated it to 18.04 with apt. Can you install any operating system in UEFI boot without using the according partitioning scheme (GPT) and a FAT32 boot partition? Ich bekomme Ubuntu von DVD gestartet. This will format the disk and delete all data on the disk, which is why having your data backed up before this point is extremely important. Download lubuntu, a fast and lightweight Linux operating system. Create a Live USB / Write a Bootable CD. In the center of the manual partitioning window shows you what name of the partition is. To switch your keyboard layout on the live session press F3 and select your keyboard layout. This page will talk about what is an EFI system partition, what will happen if you delete an EFI partition and how to remove, delete EFI system partition on Windows 10/8.1/8/7/XP/Vista in 3 parts. Another common option is to have all your data on its own partition, which can even be on its own separate physical disk this can be mounted at /home. 5. However, if you are booting and installing the system on a UEFI Firmware machine, besides the classical partitions you need to assure that you create a standard EFI partition required for the boot loader to pass the further instructions to Linux Grub.. 1. Ansonsten MUSS eine EFI Partition auf der Platte sein und sie MUSS eine GPT haben. EFI SYSTEM PARTITION should be atleast 100 MiB size and formatted as FAT32, not FAT16, bug 811485, 2011-07-16, partman-efi bug tracker, Ubuntu Launchpad, Canonical Buy me a coffee Report errors/corrections You will be taken to the Lubuntu installer Welcome screen. If Lubuntu has trouble with your graphics card you can start the live session with Start Lubuntu (safe graphics). To create this partition you will need a FAT32 file-system with the ESP flag to be mounted at /boot/efi/ under the mount point. The ESP - EFI System Partiton - should not be confused with /boot (not required for most … mit Gpartet arbeite.. Moderiert von tomtomtom: Ins passende Forum verschoben. On the bottom of the window there is a place to change your system language and to change this language press the Change button. Step One: Recon. johanneslinux. nun, wenn Du "Festplatte löschen und Ubuntu installieren" (oder wie das genau heißt) wählst, im EFI Modus gebootet hast, dann legt der Installer ubiquity das schon alles richtig an. At the bottom you can type to make sure your layout is correct. To change the storage device use the Select Storage device drop down menu. The root partition is used for keeping kernel files, boot files, system files … Plug your installation USB into your computer. Type "list partition" to display all the volumes on the hard drive. … To change what disc you are partitioning use the Storage device drop down menu. To bring back up the language selection press F2. On the bottom of the window is a progress bar. Make the ESP partition: Now I can apply the settings and write this partition to the partition table. Platte benutzt. Type "select partition n" to identify … Die EFI-Systempartition ist in der Regel 100 MB groß. This will not work if you have data partition mounted open PCManFM-Qt and press the upward pointed arrow on each partition in the Places sidebar to unmount all data partitions. If you are manually partitioning your disk in the Ubuntu installer, you need to make sure you have an EFI System Partition (ESP) set up. Lubuntu uses LXDE/LXQT and a selection of light applications. Fix Ubuntu not detecting Windows 10 during installation. To delete a partition press the Delete button. Once you have booted into the live session, feel free to explore Lubuntu and make sure all your hardware works. Because of this, Lubuntu ha… Da musst du nur darauf achten, dass "GPT Partitions Schema für UEFI Computer" eingestellt ist und dann wird das ISO-Image … Install Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver) – Create Boot Partition. New windows systems are installed in EFI mode and use GPT partitions. This partition may also contain other files (e.g. This article or section is a candidate for moving to … Ubuntu wird standardmäßig zwei Partitionen angelegt haben: Eine große für das System selbst und eine kleine als Zwischenspeicher (Swap), die vermutlich zwei bis vier Gigabyte groß ist. This article recommends you to install on an empty computer with the specification at least Intel or AMD 64-bit processor and 2GB memory and 20GB hard disk partition. You need to create a biosgrub partition on a GPT partitioned disk when setting up legacy booting or an EFI boot partition (for both GPT or MBR partitioned disk) when setting up UEFI booting. Besides, if you have created an EFI partition on a Mac and now want to install Windows operating system, you might need to delete the original EFI partition and generate a new one. You can change the installer language in the Language drop down box. EFI partition in ubuntu is basically a FAT partition with label “EFI” How to create / restore an efi partition ? Erasing your entire disk or partition may cause you to lose data so please backup beforehand. Trying to install Ubuntu first time - “No EFI System Partition was found..” solved! Backup all your data correctly from your existing Windows operating system to external storage. You will also need a root (/) file-system, several file-systems included for Lubuntu are Ext4, XFS, and Btrfs. If you are short on disk space before you install, you can tell the installer not to use extra disk space. Viewed 62k times 4. Creating ROOT partition. We will now create four partition for our Ubuntu 20.04 installation. Frage; was meint ihr - wie soll ich denn vorgehen - was kann ich schonmal rausschmeissen aus der o.g. To create this partition you will need a FAT32 file-system with the ESP flag to be mounted at /boot/efi/ under the mount point. It then sets the type code and will set up /etc/fstab appropriately. The Ubuntu installation tool scans for alternative operating systems during the installation. Select No Network. A file-system controls how your files are accessed at lower levels on the disk. © Copyright 2016-2020, Lubuntu Team. Do not install Ubuntu operating system in disk partition used by Windows. When installing respun Ubuntu or similar distros on Intel Apollo Lake devices using the '-b Linuxium' option (or '--apollo') one issue that might be encountered is where the EFI partition isn't large enough to store the bootable EFI file. Posted by 5 months ago. So you have to check if it's the same with your Windows systems. Tabelle - wenn ich z.B. Windows oder mal ein temporäres Backup drauf). if the partition layout changes GRUB may fail to boot. Trying to install Ubuntu first time - “No EFI System Partition was found..” solved! Some Windows installations only create a 60MB partition which after installing the Windows EFI files leaves only around 30MB free. Select Keyboard Layout. Once you have booted the Lubuntu image, you will be greeted by a screen with the following options: Start Lubuntu, Start Lubuntu (safe graphics), Check disk for defects, Test memory, and Boot from first hard disk. Install. Partition details are shown below: UEFI System: EFI : 1GB; swap – 4GB /home – 10GB / – Remaining (85GB) Legacy BIOS: /boot – 1GB; swap – 4GB /home – 10GB / – Remaining (85GB) Select the free space and then click on the + sign at the bottom left to create a partition. It is mandatory for UEFI boot. The installation of Ubuntu 19.04 it pretty simple and straightforward as its previous releases. 4. The Check disk for defects option offers a way to check integrity of the disk-image once it is burned onto the install media (USB or DVD). My Hard drive has the GRUB boot loader on there from a leftover Ubuntu installation and I want to delete it but I need to mount the EFI system partition first. Uninstall ubuntu and GRUB: This step is totally optional, but required when you need to remove every part of linux, as the EFI system partition is untouched in this tutorial. Here in my case I put 6000 MB i.e 6 GB. I understand from the Arch Wiki that . If you desperately need a swap space, you can you a swap file instead. The first step you need to take in order to install Ubuntu 19.04 is to burn an Ubuntu ISO image or … Do not format it. – LiveWireBT Sep 1 '15 at 7:26. Linux Boot Loaders) in dual-boot configurations. To start the install select Start Lubuntu, you will now be booting into a live session. Here is how to delete EFI system partition:Step 1. When you have selected your keyboard layout press the Next button to move on. If your disk already contains an ESP (eg if your computer had Windows 8 preinstalled), it can be used for Ubuntu too. Enter your password twice to make sure you have not mistyped it. A small bios_boot (2MB) partition for BIOS-mode GRUB's core image, an 128MB EFI System Partition, a 768MB /boot/ and a final partition for the remaining space for the operating system. The EFI (Extensible Firmware Interface) system partition or ESP is a partition on a data storage device (usually a hard disk drive or solid-state drive) that is used by computers adhering to the Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI). Active 3 years, 5 months ago. The GUID Partition Table button works for large discs but may not be recognized by legacy other operating systems. Pressing the Next button will give you a summary screen, showing you the settings before the install begins. You can create partition by clicking the Create button which will bring up a dialog. It is highly recommended that you create a Swap partition. black_tencate schrieb: . 100 MB of EFI partition is just enough, it should not be the problem. Uefi: Anders als das Bios kann Uefi kann mit MBR-Partitionen und dem FAT-Dateisystem umgehen. To see where your partition is mounted are shown in the Mount Point column. Patrick Vincent Aquino says. If you want to encrypt your your filesystem press the Encrypt checkbox. Once you are ready to install Lubuntu, double click the icon in the top-left corner of the desktop Install Lubuntu 20.10. GNU Parted: Create a primary partition with fat32 as the file system type and set the esp flag on it. Preparing to Install Ubuntu 18.04 LTS. Heute mach man das mit einem EFI USB-Stick, den du dir unter Windows mit dem Programm Rufus erstellen kannst.Das Programm gibt es für Umme bei https://rufus.akeo.ie/. The size of the system is shown in the Size Column. I messed up one of the old Ubuntu partitions and now booting lands me at the grub cmd shell prompt. But I don not intend to install Ubuntu on a 256 MB partition. Note that this is not the same as a partition mounted on /boot. Do I need to set mount point to /boot/efi for efi partition. The GUID partition table, GPT, is fixed automatically, if you use mkusb 10.6.6 or a newer version to install from these compressed image files. The Ubuntu installation tool scans for alternative operating systems during the installation. To delete the original EFI partition, you have to turn to a third-party partition manager since the Windows native tools don’t allow you to remove the ESP. 1. Reply. Select Manual Disk Partitioning. The next screen will show you a map of the world where you can choose your location. After pressing this button you will get a dialog saying what kind of partition table to use. First things first – we need to get some basic information about the partition, like the drive it sits on, before we start configuring the mount point. If you choose to do this you can continue on to user setup. To change how big to make the partition change the Size field. To change the size or type of a partition after initially creating it press the Edit button. You can install Ubuntu without a dedicated /home partition, but it's always recommended to use a separate home. To actually install press the Install now button. Yes, a separate EFI partition (FAT32 formated) small partition is always required if using UEFI mode. Usually, the EFI System Partition (ESP) and the boot partition are on the same disk, but if your computer has more than one internal disk, then the EFI system partition and the boot partition may be separated on different disks. It then sets the type code and will set up /etc/fstab appropriately. This quick and simple guide will show you how to mount a partition in Ubuntu and ensure it’s always mounted automatically on boot. So how can I mount it from the Live CD? So apparently I don't know exactly what is causing such problem. Select Language. Install new operating system in a new disk partition. Help appreciated, Bondy. Restore lost EFI boot partition : After you can boot computer into a normal state, it’s time to restore … The reason that you cannot delete an EFI partition on a Windows 10, 8, 7 or Vista based computer, is because the EFI partition is protected from deletion by the OS. 1- I think that your Windows is installed in EFI mode and normally Ubuntu should detect the EFI boot partition but it seems that it doesn't. 21:03, (Focal Fossa operating system installation process). Wenn Du aber selber die Partitionen festlegst ("Etwas Anderes…"), dann mußt Du die eben erzeugen.. Das ist ein Laptop von Tuxedo mit vorinstalliertem Ubuntu. First, you need to identify the disk where the EFI partit… In recent versions of Linux fdisk , you set the partition type by its number (1 for "EFI System" on GPT disks or 0xEF on MBR disks) or … To get back to your main partitioning window press the OK button. Choose one of the following methods to create an ESP for a MBR partitioned disk: fdisk: Create a primary partition with partition type EFI (FAT-12/16/32). If you use other tools, you need gpt-fix or to fix the GPT manually with gdisk. You see Ubuntu desktop with an orange icon, If you install Ubuntu into flash drive, do not Use as: EXT4 but. Ich habe Ubuntu unter einem Nicht-UEFI (Master Boot Record) installiert und Ubuntu ohne 'Biosgrub' installiert, und es funktioniert einwandfrei, während ich manchmal gebeten werde, eine 'Biosgrub'-Partition zu erstellen. The actual extent of divergence is unknown: Apple maintains a separate tool that should be used, while other systems use FAT utilities just fine. Happy installing! Then a two fields will appear to get write type your encryption passphrase twice to confirm it. 1) Prepare the partition on windows New windows systems are installed in EFI mode and use GPT partitions. In such case, you may want to move the EFI System Partition (ESP) to the disk which the boot partition is on. If all you want is Lubuntu on your machine, you can select the Erase disk button. The Lubuntu installer provides some useful information while the installer is running. Usually, a separate hard drive running Windows 10, or a Windows 10 partition is automatically detected with Os-Prober, a sophisticated operating system scanning tool. The EFI system partition is formatted with a file system whose specification is based on the FAT file system and maintained as part of the UEFI specification; therefore, the file system specification is independent from the original FAT specification. Overwrite the Linux Boot Loader with Windows Boot Loader. Ubuntu-18.04-Desktop-disk-screen Step 3: Creating Swap Partition. (This section is out-of-date & may need research for sizes) During a normal install, the installer copies the packages from the CD to the hard drive (in addition to actually installing them). 4.

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